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# Holy Bot

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Everybody seems to be talking about Euclidean rhythms, but here’s a short explanations on this blog anyway.

The Euclidean algorithm computes the greatest common divisor of two given integers. This is used to distribute numbers as evenly as possible, not only in music, but in applications in many fields of scientific research, e.g. string theory and particle acceleration.

Euclidean rhythms are derived from two values: one that represents the length of the pattern in steps, and the other that defines the hits or notes to be distributed evenly across that pattern. Any remainders are also to be distributed.

Here’s two examples. First: E(2,8), this means a sequence of eight beats and two hits [11000000], where 1 is a hit and 0 represents a rest. Spread out evenly across, it should look something like this [10001000].

A second example: E(5,8), with five hits, [11111000] via [10101011] looks like this after the remainders are distributed as evenly as possible [10110110].

Any two numbers can be combined to generate a semi-repetitive pattern. It’s possible to offset the rotation of the sequence by a certain number of steps. And by playing several patterns with differents lengths and offsets, complex polyrhythms can occur. For example, try playing E(2,8), described as above, together with E(5,16) like this [0010010010010010].

# Mixing at the Right Levels

There’s this theory of the ear that it hears different frequencies at different levels. The Fletcher-Munson curves, commonly known as equal-loudness contours, indicate the ear’s average sensitivity to different frequencies at various amplitude levels.

Even if the tonal balance of the sound remains the same, at low volume, mid range frequencies sound more prominent. While at high listening volumes, the lows and highs sound more prominent, and the mid range seems to back off.

In short, this explains why quieter music seems to sound less rich and full than louder music. Generally it’s better for the music to sound good as the volume increases.

As a consequence of this, you should edit, mix and work on your music on a high enough volume (not ridiculously loud), so that you can make sure your music doesn’t sound terrible when it’s listened to at a higher level. Because as a music producer you would want your music to sound best when the listener is paying full attention. But use caution, don’t damage your ears bla bla bla.

The normal thing to treat a dry vocal is to put reverb and delay on it. But that could make the vocal a bit muddy.

To keep it in-your-face and conserve the clarity of the vocal, while still having an effect to make it sound bigger, try ducking the volume of the delays whenever the dry vocal is active. To do so, side-chain the delay bus to the lead vocal track.

For example, use a delay device on a return bus and put a quarter note delay with low feedback, and send it to the vocal track with a little less volume. On the same bus, put a compressor and select the vocal track as the side-chain source. Set it up as you like, perhaps bring down the wet-parameter some.

You can also try the same thing with a reverb.

Three years ago I posted a list of some music production methods and tips on my blog that still gets some attention. Now, here’s some other good read (I hope).

Moreover, you really should check out the most popular post on this blog about the best tips on music production that I can think of.

Gain staging refers to the process of managing the relative levels – at each stage of the audio signal path – in the mix to prevent introduction of noise and distortion. This can have a profound impact on the quality of your recordings.

Generally, the goal is to keep the signal chain as clean as possible, that is, high above the noise floor without overloading. Proper gain staging is critical in setting the levels to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the input signals.

Treat every device in the setup as an opportunity to compound errors. Consider both hardware and software components of this issue (although headroom is not really a problem in the digital world).

So don’t run hot during mixing or the D/A converters will start to introduce clipping and artefacts. Still, you can clip shit, e.g. the drum channel (by doing so you can achieve some effect, some pop). That being said, never let the master fader clip.

The term polyrhythm denotes the rhythmic dissonance created by the simultaneous use of two or more conflicting rhythms in different time signatures. This can be systemic, the basis of an entire track – cross-rhythm – or just a brief momentary disruption, e.g. the hi-hat or snare triplets rolls on a trap beat.

Try it out yourself: Program a drum loop, set the kick and snare in a straight 4/4 rhythm, but put hi-hats in a 6/8. Add a bassline pattern in 4/4 and put some chords in 5/4, voilà! (You may have to set up your sequencer or piano roll grid to 48th notes.)

With polyrhythms, this loop just got more interesting, less predictable and got some character.

10 essential tips… 20 mistakes… 30 production secrets and so on, such lists seems to be really popular these days. Although many of them are just full of crap. Especially forget about the longer checklists – even if you could find some good advices there, most tips are just nonsense, like “don’t mix bass with headphones”.

Anyway, to you aspiring producer, here’s a few things I think you should care about:

• Listen to different styles of music and try to identify what you like and what you dislike.
• Analyze your favorite artists’ work in great detail. Theorize with both feet on the ground.
• Go ahead and copy other artists, but don’t settle there – tweak and add your own style and flavor.
• Cover, remix and remake your favorite tracks, it’s a good and fun way to learn about music.
• Use reference tracks, compare your shit to others, but don’t get paralyzed when your track doesn’t bang as loud as them.
• Learn about synthesis and learn how to sound design different kind of instruments, e.g. strings, plucks, percussion (make synthetic drums using waveforms, a noise generator, filters, envelopes and such).
• Check your music productions on several systems; from high-end studio monitor speakers to iPhone earbuds.
• Sleep on it. Let your track mature over night and return to it with fresh ears.
• Go hardware, get tactile if you are growing tired of a software-based environment. To actually play an instrument or to turn a real knob is really something else.
• Get inspiration from collaborations with other artists. Just reach out to people you admire – this is globalization, this is the time of teh internetz.
• Try to keep passionate about creating music, but don’t be afraid to make some demands of yourself, just to push things forward.

You can farm for Blood Echoes (and Blood Vials) quite early in Bloodborne. But first you need to defeat the Blood-Starved Beast in a ruined church at the bottom of Old Yharnam.

This will cause the Snatchers to appear around Cathedral Ward. So go there and get killed by a Snatcher.

You will now wake up in a prison. Leave the cage and ascend the stairs, and reach the lamp of Hypogean Gaol (which in fact is in Yahar’gul, Unseen Village).

Fight your way through the main hall and exit the building.

1. Outside Hypogean Gaol. Wait next to the stairs for the Giant Pig to reach the top where the note “Behold! A Paleblood sky!” can be found. Kill the bloody pig.
2. Advance forward on the main street (left of Hypogean Gaol).
3. On your left side there’s another Giant Pig. Dodge the attack and then kill it.
4. Continue up the streets and kill the Rabid Dogs. Pick one at a time.
5. By the end of the street there’s a Snatcher and two more Rabid Dogs. Ignore them, and turn back to the Hypogean Gaol.

Follow the alley to the left of the building and open a door to the lamp.

Now wake up at Hypogean Gaol again. Take the shortcut that you’ve just opened so that you don’t need to fight the relatively tough Snatchers in the main hall. Repeat step 1-5 above.

At this point of the game, every time you wake up at Hypogean Gaol – before you kill Rom, the Vacuous Spider – the Giant Pigs and the Rabid Dogs will respawn, and these creatures are pretty easy to kill and will get you over 10,000 Blood Echoes each iteration. The Giant Pigs are also likely to drop Blood Vials.

Recently I got a Roland Alpha Juno-2. It’s an analog synth that has a couple of uncommon features: pulse width modulation on both the pulse/square and the sawtooth waveform, and a 7-stage contour generator, which adds a huge range of sonic possibilities.

Anyway, the AJ-2’s pretty good for lush polyphonic pads and strings. But instead of writing a review of this nearly 30 year old synth, I thought I’d give you guys a quick rundown of how to make strings, which you can translate to other subtractive synths. For this, I’m skipping the unique features of the AJs, although it’s best if the synth you’re using has pulse width modulation (PWM).

1. Set a first oscillator to pulse, give it a pitch of 8’.
2. Add slow movement by applying some PWM. You might need to use a LFO to do this; route LFO (triangle wave) as source and the oscillator’s pulse width as destination.
3. Set a second oscillator to sawtooth and an octave higher than the first. Detune the pitch a few cent steps to render unison and fatten the sound.
4. Mix the two oscillators so that the second is slightly lower.
5. Add a subtle amount of vibrato (pitch modulation) using a LFO (triangle wave or sample and hold) to modulate the pitch of both oscillators.
6. Bring in some white noise, though most of it should be muted by the LPF (see below), it can give the sound a little shimmer.
7. Add a sub-oscillator set an octave down from the first oscillator.
8. Set the low-pass filter to about halfway (aim for a mellow tone) and add a bit of resonance.
9. Optionally, you can tweak the filter envelope for timbral variation.
10. Adjust the amplification envelope to a slow attack and a medium release time. Bring up sustain so that the sound doesn’t lose volume over time.
11. As far as effects go, try chorus, a little delay and/or a hell of a lot of reverb.

There you go – a thick, lush, synth string. Nothing like real orchestral strings, but yet a sound with its own characteristic, that’s just as valid as any other instrument.